Our future astronauts will have to contend with galactic cosmic radiation (GCR's), solar radiation and high energy particles within our Van Allen Belts. These radiation sources are a major detriment for the health and safety of human beings leaving the protection of our Earth's magnetic shield. Radiation exposure is dangerous, which is why people employed in positions that expose them to radiation have lifetime limits of exposure before they have to seek employment elsewhere.
The GSO seeks to eliminate radiation exposure so that our future crews and customers on the surface of the Moon and in space will be able to live, work and play in a safe and healthy environment. We plan to do this for GSO Lunar Station One in a variety of ways, through use of radiation blocking materials, in-situ resource utilization and station placement. Thick walls of lunar regolith and emplacement within known or newly discovered lunar lava tubes will not only block radiation exposure but also prevent damage from micro meteors.
In deep space between Earth and the Moon our current space craft designs offer poor protection from solar and cosmic radiation. Once established on the Moon, the GSO plans to develop a cis-lunar shuttle fully designed, constructed and launched from lunar orbit. This would allow us to bypass our current limitations with weight and mass of heavy spacecraft leaving Earth's massive gravity well. The hull of this future shuttle would be thicker, stronger and utilize interior shielding materials such as polymers, water and regolith designed to block ionizing space radiation from all sources keeping passengers safe on their journey from Earth's orbit to the Moon. Many in the current space industry speak of only "limited radiation exposure" in designs they plan for the long journey to Mars. This is the wrong way of thinking. There are three factors when planning protections for radiation shielding.
Time, Distance and Shielding Materials: Our guidelines for controlling and eliminating exposure to ionizing solar & galactic (GCR's) radiation will plan for the length of time exposed to all radiation sources. Our Apollo astronauts were exposed to background radiation for only a nine day journey to the Moon and back. A trip to Mars could take seven to nine months with a higher daily radiation exposure and the possibility to become exposed to high energy solar events. Distance from crew members to radiation sources can help determine our hull design and shielding thicknesses to stop radiation sources from reaching personnel. Finally the Shielding itself should be layered with different materials designed to protect from ionizing radiation and its scattering effect of secondary particles upon impact with the space craft hull.
Radiation Shielding Materials Thickness:
α ALPHA – can be stopped after traveling through about 1.2 inches of air, about 0.008 inches of water, or a piece of paper or skin. A thin piece of paper, or even the dead cells in the outer layer of human skin provides adequate shielding because alpha particles can’t penetrate it. However, living tissue inside the body offers no protection against inhaled or ingested alpha emitters.
β BETA – can only be stopped after traveling through about 10 feet of air, less than 2 inches of water, or a thin layer of glass or metal. Additional covering, for example heavy clothing, is necessary to protect against beta- emitters. Some beta particles can penetrate and burn the skin.
γ GAMMA - To reduce typical gamma rays by a factor of a billion, thicknesses of shield need to be about 13.8 feet of water, about 6.6 feet of concrete, or about 1.3 feet of lead. Thick, dense shielding is necessary to protect against gamma rays. The higher the energy of the gamma ray, the thicker the shield must be. Our spacecraft hull can be constructed to appropriate thicknesses utilizing lunar regolith and layered pockets within the hull filled with polymers, water and other radiation blocking materials.
The ultimate goal for the Global Space Organization is to make space travel desirable, safe and yes profitable. Radiation exposure does not have to be a problem for our future crews and customers. Instead of limiting, we can through other means, from the lunar surface create designs and systems that will protect our future in space.
Let the world know our vision. Global Space Organization - To the Moon & Beyond